1

The Transistor at High Frequencies:
Hybrid–pi CE transistor model, Hybrid–pi conductances, Hybrid–pi capacitances, Validity of hybrid–pi model, Variation of hybrid–pi parameters, CE shortcircuit current gain, Current gain with resistive load, Singlestage CE transistor amplifier response, Gainbandwidth product, Emitter follower at high frequencies



2

Oscillators:
Sinusoidal oscillators, Phaseshift oscillator, Resonant circuit oscillators, A general form of oscillator circuit, Wien bridge oscillator, Crystal oscillators, Frequency stability



3

Operational Amplifiers:
The basic operational amplifier, The differential amplifier, The emittercoupled differential amplifier, Transfer characteristics of a differential amplifier



4

Introduction to Operational Amplifiers, Interpretation of Data Sheets and Characteristics of an Opamp:
Introduction, Block Diagram representation of a typical opamp, its equivalent circuits, types of ICs, Manufacturers’ designations and package types for ICs, Power supplies for ICs, Interpreting datasheet, Ideal opamp, Equivalent circuit of an opamp, Ideal voltage transfer curve, Openloop opamp configurations



5

An Opamp with Negative Feedback:
Voltage series feedback amplifier, Voltage shunt feedback amplifier, Differential Amplifier



6

Opamp Offset Voltage:
Introduction, Input offset voltage, Input bias current, Input offset current, Total output offset voltage, Thermal Drift, Effect of variation in power supply voltages on offset voltage, Change in input offset voltage and input offset current with time, Other temperature and supply voltage sensitive parameters, Noise



7

General Linear Applications:
DC and AC Amplifiers, AC amplifiers with single supply voltage, Peaking amplifier, Summing, Scaling and Averaging Amplifier, Instrumentation Amplifier – its block diagram along with applications, Differential input and differential output amplifier, Voltagetocurrent converter with floating load (low voltage DC voltmeter, low voltage AC voltmeter, Diode match finder, Zener diode tester, Light emitting diode tester), Currenttovoltage converter, Integrator, Differentiator



8

Comparators and Converters:
Comparator, Zero crossing detector, Schmitt Trigger, Voltage limiters, Clipper and clampers, Absolute value output circuit, Peak detector, Sample and hold circuit, Precision rectifier – Half/Full Wave, Square, Triangular and Saw tooth wave generator, Common mode configuration and common mode rejection ratio, Slew rate and its equations, Effect of slew rate in applications



9

Specialized ICs and its Applications:
a. 555 Timer and its applications:
Block diagram, Monostable and Astable multivibrator, Applications as Frequency divider, Square wave generator
b. Phase Locked Loops and its Applications:
Block diagram and operation, Applications as Frequency Multiplier, Frequency Shift Keying
c. Design of Power Supply:
Simple opamp voltage regulator, Three terminal voltage regulators, Fixed and adjustable voltage regulators (78XX, LM317), Heat sink, Dual power supply (LM320, LM317), Basic switching regulator and its characteristics



10

Opamp based Filter Circuits:
Classification of filters, Magnitude and frequency scaling, Magnitude and attenuation characteristics of ideal and practical filters, Design parameter Q and ω0, Biquad (Universal) filter design, Butterworth lowpass and highpass filters – 1st and 2nd order circuits design, Butterworth pole location, Sallen and key circuit, Butterworth bandpass filters – frequency transformation, Deliyannis – friend Circuit, Chebyshev filter characteristics, Band reject filters


